The investigation was led by Professor Gareth Edwards-Jones of Bangor University over a one-year period and collated the few studies that have so far been undertaken researching the energy output of the horticulture industry.
The report demonstrated how a carbon footprint could be calculated for a horticultural enterprise.
The authors discussed the environmental impact classifications currently being used, including carbon footprint calculation, food miles labelling and life-cycle analysis (LCA) calculation, stressing the need for an international standard to make comparison fair.
The study revealed that protected edible crops, particularly tomatoes, account for more than half of the total energy used in UK horticulture, with a third used by protected ornamentals and nine per cent on field crops.
The HDC team will now use the research to identify ways to support growers in reducing emissions.