Vickers, who has 20 years' experience in the seed industry, most recently as sales manager at Tozer Seeds, will take charge of the Cambridgeshire leguminous crop research station in early November.
He replaces Salvador Potter, who has served on the PGRO board for 10 years, and who had planned to retire at the end of the year.
PGRO Chairman Stephen Francis said: "PGRO has evolved enormously in recent years. It is a younger, better organised and more forward looking organisation now, with a clearly defined applied research role in a sector where agronomy skills are crucially important.
"We look forward to Roger leading our team in the future as PGRO continues to deliver existing services and to explore new opportunities for UK legumes."