More than 80 individual projects are being rolled out across the capital over the next four years as part of the Activate London Programme.
The project is being led by housing association the Peabody Trust and kicked off this month with the launch of a gardening school in Whitechapel on 16 July.
A weekly market will sell fruit and vegetables from the gardening school once the project gets off the ground.
A scheme creating compost boxes and a greenhouse at the Peabody Goldsmiths Estate in Acton, west London, began on 30 July to help local residents grow more exotic fruit and vegetables they cannot source nearby.
Professional gardeners and volunteers will lead the activities. They will also train residents to enable them to continue carrying out the projects and pass on skills they have learned.
Peabody Trust chief executive Steve Howlett said: "By encouraging social housing residents to adopt healthier lifestyles I believe that we can create a more socially inclusive and sustainable London."