Cave Pavilion, designed by Sophie Walker, uses a perspex light-box as a walled container for plants, like a 21st century reinvention of the Wardian Case.
Plant hunters Sue and Bleddyn Wynn-Jones, owner of Crug Farm Plants, have supplied what is claimed to be the first garden in RHS Chelsea history to use only wild origin plants.
Each will be listed with its own individual seed collection number, describing who collected the seed, where and when.
Many of the plants will not have been seen before in cultivation and many are listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature as vulnerable and endangered.
Designer Sophie Walker said: "Cave Pavilion has a dreamy reality between what is discovered and what is imagined. The experience is full of wonder, like looking into a kaleidoscope to discover an expanded world, or finding the surprising space that opens up when you enter a cave and your eyes become accustomed to the dark.
"One of the things I’m interested in is bringing the tradition of plant hunting to a new generation. I’m thrilled to be working with the Garden Museum which actively supports contemporary garden design today whilst celebrating the achievements of the great plant plant-hunters and botanists of the past."
Garden Museum director Christopher Woodward said: "Sophie’s design celebrates the work of plant-hunters Sue and Bleddyn Wynn-Jones, whose mission combines the daring exploration of the great Victorian plant-hunters with ecological and cultural awareness of the 21st century. We are grateful to the supporter who has made this garden by such a talented young designer possible.