The author of the bill, state Senator Jenny Oropeza, had argued the legislation would help reduce litter along with the threat of wildfires and second-hand smoke in California's 278 state parks.
However in a letter to California senators, Arnold Schwarzenegger said state parks and local governments were already permitted to ban smoking on a case-by-case basis.
Hundreds of communities across the US have enacted smoking bans at municipal parks and beaches.
In the UK, the London Borough of Tower Hamlets has banned smoking at one of its playgrounds in Mile End Park.
Meanwhile, the local committe of Beddington and Wallington, in the south London borough of Sutton, banned smoking in its public parks in 2008.
In addition, the Royal College of Physicians has argued that parks, play areas, outdoor swimming pools and all vehicles should be covered by an extension of the existing smoking ban.