A company spokesperson said they were unable to meet short and long-term operating cash requirements and considered court protection and restructuring the best option.
They have been granted 120 days following the filing to prepare a plan that contains a new capital structure for the company that treats all creditors equitably.
For now they are functioning as a "debtor in possession".
Jackson & Perkins was founded in 1872 as a wholesaler of strawberry and grape plants, before growing into one of the best-known rose-growing companies in the world.
Following the introduction of the climbing rose ‘Dorothy Perkins' in 1901, the company quickly grew into the "world's foremost producer and marketer of roses."
It pioneered mail order roses in America following the 1939 World's fair.
The company has had a number of different owners since leaving the Perkins family in 1966, culminating in its purchase by the Hachenberger investment group which also owns an interest in the Park Seed Company.
Subscribe to Horticulture Week for more news, more in-depth features and more technical and market info.