"In modern cider orchards the main pests are apple sawfly, rosy apple aphid and other potentially serious ones like apple blossom weevil and apple sucker. If you have a mite problem, you've done something wrong," he said.
"Encourage flowering herbaceous plants in the alleys - wild flowers can be just as hard-wearing as grass. Mow the alleys in rotation and leave some areas wild. Keep pesticide use and the width of the herbicide strip to a minimum. Wasps are one of the most underrated predators we have."
He added: "We get alien pests because we move stuff around the world and no number of inspections will intercept everything." Fortunately: "Spotted-wing drosophila poses zero risk to cider apples."