In 2015, slugs and snails, which had been the number one pests for eight of the past 10 years, were pushed off the top spot by the box tree moth.
As in the previous 21 years, honey fungus was named the most troublesome plant disease by gardeners, with RHS scientists identifying its presence on 70 host genera.
Fuchsia gall mite moved 5 places up the table from 8th position in 2015 to being named the third most problematic pest of 2016. Glasshouse thrips moved from outside the top 10 in 2015 to fourth place last year.
Top pests: slugs/snails, vine weevil, fuchsia gall mite, glasshouse thrips, wooly aphid, tortrix moth, box tree moth, rosemary beetle, viburnum beetle, ants.
Top diseases: honey fungus, phytophthora, box blight, rust, leaf spots, powdery mildew, volutella blight, bacterial diseases, scab, wood decay.