The bill, to be debated in June, aims to change the classification of gardens from brownfield to greenfield sites and to give local councils control over planning decisions.
Introducing the bill, Spelman said: "The impact (of garden grabbing] on the environment, infrastructure and people's quality of life has been disastrous."
She said developers increasingly targeted gardens for building, adding that garden sites tend to be in areas of higher real-estate value and houses built were usually too expensive for first-time buyers, so would not meet the need for affordable housing.
Spelman attempted to tackle the issue last year by introducing a Private Members' Bill. It was due to be heard in Parliament last October but was "talked out" when the parliamentary session ended before it was considered.