The installation, known as CityTree, is 4m tall, nearly 3m wide and 2m deep and is said to have the environmental benefit of up to 275 urban trees.
Each tree cost about £20,000 and funding came from the Scottish Government and Glasgow City Council.
Created by Berlin-based Green City Solutions, the CityTree is made up of moss cultures that have a much larger leaf surface area than any other plant and can capture more pollutants.
The moss can remove dust and nitrogen dioxide from the air. It requires little maintenance and solar panels power its electrical requirements. Rainwater collected is used for irrigation.
The manufacturer estimates each CityTree can remove around 12.2kg of particulate matter and 240 metric tons of CO2 annually. Glasgow is the first UK city to have the CityTrees.
Councillor Anna Richardson said: "We have set a target of making Glasgow one of Europe's most sustainable cities and the arrival of these installations is a massive boost."