Ghayoor Karimiani, Serek and Mibus did the experiments at the Institute of Floral Production Systems at Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University of Hannover and their work was reported in The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology.
The study was designed using Campanula carpatica 'Improved Blue Uniform' to generate red flower colour by down-regulation of delphinidin production through RNA1 silencing of a flabanoid hydroxylase gene, and to improve vase life by inducing insensitivity to ethylene using the ethylene-resistant gene.
The flower colour of the transformed lines was "not visually altered", the authors found. Some 86.4 per cent of flowers on one transgenic line of Campanula plants survived.
The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology also reported on the relationships among electrical conductivity measurements during saline irrigation of potted osteospermum and their effects on plant growth, by Vadles, Franco, Sanchez-Blanco and Banon of the University Politenica de Cartagena in Spain. It found "moderate salinity tolerance of osteospermum", meaning alternative sources of water including recycled wastewater and saline underground water could be options to irrigate nurseries and landscapes.