Three research centres will home in on the rapidly changing research requirements of Forest Research's public and private-sector clients.
Centre for Forestry and Climate Change will research effects of environmental change on forestry and how the sector responds, under the lead of Professor Andy Moffat.
Centre for Forest Resources and Management will look at ways of quantifying and improving Britain's forests, and will be headed by Dr Helen McKay.
Centre for Human and Ecological Sciences will research the role of trees and woodland in society, and will be led by Dr Chris Quine.
Tim Rollinson, director-general of the Forestry Commission, said: "We want Forest Research to be more responsive to modern requirements of government, the forestry community and wider society.
"We've also aimed to put it on a more outward-looking, business-like footing. It now has a clearer focus on our priority, which is climate change."
Dr James Pendlebury, chief executive of Forest Research, said: "Our vision is to be a robust, market-relevant and flexible group with a reputation for innovative applied science."