Landscape designer Dan Pearson has created five distinct landscape areas for the bridge, taking inspiration from plant cultivation in London over the centuries.
The sections start with the South Bank which will include species once common on Lambeth Marsh and central London.
Next, the South Glade will be woodland, featuring plants known for spring blossom and autumn fruit.
At the central span - the most challenging part of the bridge - the Scarp is designed to create an environment similar to a cliff top landscape.
Old London's parks and gardens inspired the North Glade, a woodland area with plants clipped to create defined forms.
Finally the North Bank landscape will echo nearby Temple Gardens with scented late winter and early spring flowering shrubs.
Wild plants inspired the proposed planting schemes, which aim to creating an ecologically sustainable corridor to encourage pollination and biodiversity.
Long-term, the Garden Bridge strategy is to create areas with flexible management and maintenance, which reflect how the plants will change as they compete for space, nutrients, water, and light.
Pearson said: "I am thrilled to be bringing Great Britain’s passion for gardens, gardening and horticulture to life on the Garden Bridge, using London’s unique horticultural story to help inspire the design.
"There are so many exceptional moments from gardens past and living green spaces around us today and the Garden Bridge will complement and continue this rich history of horticultural excellence in London."